Stomach Ulcers: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Dealing with diarrhoea at home

Stomach Ulcers: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Stomach ulcers, also known as gastric ulcers, are open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach. They occur when the protective layer of mucus that lines the stomach is damaged, allowing stomach acid to erode the tissue. While stomach ulcers can be painful and uncomfortable, they are usually treatable with the help of medical intervention and lifestyle changes.

Symptoms of Stomach Ulcers

The symptoms of stomach ulcers can vary from person to person. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Abdominal pain: A burning or gnawing pain in the abdomen, usually between the breastbone and the navel, is a common symptom of stomach ulcers. The pain can range from mild to severe and may come and go.

2. Indigestion: Many people with stomach ulcers experience indigestion or bloating after eating. This can lead to feelings of fullness, discomfort, or nausea.

3. Heartburn: Stomach acid flowing back into the lower esophagus can cause a burning sensation in the chest known as heartburn. This symptom may worsen when lying down or bending over.

4. Nausea and vomiting: Some individuals may experience nausea and vomiting, particularly after meals or when taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin or ibuprofen.

5. Loss of appetite: Stomach ulcers can sometimes lead to a decreased appetite and subsequent weight loss.

It is important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by other medical conditions. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis.

Causes of Stomach Ulcers

Stomach ulcers are primarily caused by an imbalance between the stomach acid and the protective factors that line the stomach. The following are common causes and risk factors for developing stomach ulcers:

1. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection: This bacterium is one of the most common causes of stomach ulcers. It is estimated that H. pylori infection is present in nearly 50% of the world’s population. The bacteria weaken the protective mucus layer, allowing stomach acid to damage the stomach lining.

2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Long-term use of NSAIDs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, can irritate the stomach lining and increase the risk of developing ulcers.

3. Excessive stomach acid production: Certain individuals may produce excess stomach acid, which can contribute to the development of ulcers. This can occur in conditions like Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

4. Smoking: Smoking interferes with the healing process of stomach ulcers and increases the risk of complications.

5. Stress and lifestyle factors: Though not a direct cause, chronic stress and unhealthy lifestyle habits, such as excessive alcohol consumption and poor diet, can contribute to the development and progression of stomach ulcers.

Treatment of Stomach Ulcers

The treatment of stomach ulcers usually involves a combination of medications, lifestyle modifications, and, in some cases, surgery. Here are a few common treatment options:

1. Medications: Doctors often prescribe proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to reduce stomach acid production and give the ulcers time to heal. Antibiotics may also be prescribed if an H. pylori infection is present.

2. Antacids and H2 blockers: These medications can provide temporary relief by neutralizing stomach acid or reducing its production.

3. Lifestyle changes: Adopting a healthy lifestyle can aid in the treatment and prevention of stomach ulcers. This includes avoiding NSAIDs, quitting smoking, reducing stress levels, and consuming a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

4. Surgery: In rare cases when ulcers do not respond to medications or if serious complications like bleeding or perforation occur, surgical intervention may be necessary.

It’s important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment plan.


– Mayo Clinic: Stomach Ulcers
– National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Peptic Ulcers (Stomach Ulcers)
– American Gastroenterological Association: Understanding Ulcers

Remember, always consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice and treatment options.

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